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New Code (Polaris) for optimizing website to load 34% more faster in any browser or at any device - Polaris

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Polaris, a new code that loads website on any website 34% faster.
Faster Website Loads
Polaris developed by a TEAM MIT , this code has been programmed to gather up and evaluate all the background files of a particular website, including image files, HTML files, and JavaScript source code, way more efficiently than current systems. 
(image credit: shrimptank.ca)
Day by day websites increase its complexity and daily new module, new addons added to website. Social media and their plugins to website take down's website loading speed.
"As pages increase in complexity, they often require multiple trips that create delays that really add up," said by Ravi Netravali. "Our approach minimizes the number of round trips so that we can substantially speed up a page’s load-time."

You’re not the only but every users of internet frustrated by a site that doesn’t instantly load - pretty much everyone feels your pain, and are quite happy to drop a page like a sack of oranges if it’s going to keep them waiting. According to Amazon, every 100-millisecond delay in website loading time cuts their profits by 1 percent.


While this isn’t the first dependency-tracker to be developed, the team says this is the only one that’s able to capture the most subtle dependencies that exist on a page, which allows it to achieve such impressive speeds. Another benefit is that it can be written in JavaScript, which means it can work with any website.

The team hopes that the system will be integrated with browsers in the future, so every page you load on a particular browser will appear that much faster.

How web pages work
Before you type in a URL, your browser doesn’t actually know what the page looks like. To load the page, the browser has to reach across the network to fetch “objects” like HTML files, JavaScript source code, and images. Once an object is fetched, the browser evaluates it to add the object’s content to the page that the user sees.

But it’s not quite that simple. Evaluating one object often means having to fetch and evaluate more objects, which are described as “dependencies” of the originals. As an example, a browser might have to execute a file’s JavaScript code in order to discover more images to fetch and render.


The problem is that browsers can’t actually see all of these dependencies because of the way that objects are represented by HTML (the standard format for expressing a webpage’s structure). As a result, browsers have to be conservative about the order in which they load objects, which tends to increase the number of cross-network trips and slow down the page load. 

How Polaris fits in 
What Polaris does is automatically track all of the interactions between objects, which can number in the thousands for a single page. For example, it notes when one object reads the data in another object, or updates a value in another object. It then uses its detailed log of these interactions to create a “dependency graph” for the page.

Mickens offers the analogy of a travelling businessperson. When you visit one city, you sometimes discover more cities you have to visit before going home. If someone gave you the entire list of cities ahead of time, you could plan the fastest possible route. Without the list, though, you have to discover new cities as you go, which results in unnecessary zig-zagging between far-away cities. 

“For a web browser, loading all of a page’s objects is like visiting all of the cities,” says Mickens. “Polaris effectively gives you a list of all the cities before your trip actually begins. It’s what allows the browser to load a webpage more quickly.” 

Dependency-trackers have existed before, but are all as constrained as the browsers themselves. This is because their method of comparing lexical relationships - specifically, the text in HTML tags - mimics the way browsers load pages and does not capture more subtle dependencies.

Another advantage to Polaris is that its scheduler to retrieve objects is written in JavaScript, which means it can be used with unmodified browsers and deployed on a site-by-site basis. Netravali points out that in order for a web site to benefit from the system, the site’s servers must run Polaris' dependency-tracking measurement platform. 

“We are hopeful that the system will eventually be integrated into the browser,” he says. “Doing so will enable additional optimizations that can further accelerate page loads.”

A better approach to a faster web
Tech companies like Google and Amazon have also tried to improve load-times, with an emphasis on lowering costs for data-usage. This means that they often focus on the challenge of more quickly transferring information via data compression. The CSAIL team, meanwhile, has demonstrated that Polaris’ gains on load-time are more consistent and more substantive.

“Recent work has shown that slow load-times are more strongly related to network delays than available bandwidth,” says Balakrishnan. “Rather than decreasing the number of transferred bytes, we think that reducing the effect of network delays will lead to the most significant speedups.”

Polaris is particularly suited for larger, more complex sites, which aligns nicely with recent trends of modern pages ballooning to thousands of (JavaScript-heavy) objects. The system is also valuable for mobile networks, since those tend to have larger delays than wired networks.


“Tracking fine-grained dependencies has the potential to greatly reduce page-load times, especially for low-bandwidth or high-latency connections,” says Mark Marron, a senior research software development engineer at Microsoft. “On top of that, the availability of detailed dependence information has a wide range of possible applications, such as tracking the source statement of an unexpected value that led to a crash at runtime.”

Source: #csail.mit.edu and #techgig.com


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